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Date : September 18, 2020
North Korean Phone Money
   https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/20200916-sr_481-north… [289]

North Korean Phone Money: Airtime Transfers as a Precursor to Mobile Payment System

By Yonho Kim

North  Korea’s  rhetoric  has  increasingly  emphasized  economic  development  since  Kim  Jong  Un  took  power  in  2011.  After  declaring  completion  of  the  state  nuclear  force  in  his  2018  New  Year’s address, Kim announced in April 2018 a “new strategic line” that shifted from the paral-lel (byungjin) policy of pursuing both economic growth and nuclear weapons to concentrating on the economy.1 Furthermore, fully aware of the failure of the inconsistent market policies of his father and predecessor, Kim Il Sung, Kim has shown greater tolerance for market activities and introduced some economic reform measures, including increased managerial latitude for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and farmers’ limited right to sell excess output at market prices. ....


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